Friday, January 31, 2020

Possible Effects Of Global Warming Essay Example for Free

Possible Effects Of Global Warming Essay If the global temperature swells by another 7 degrees, then it may result in melting of polar ice which may result in about a 3 to 4 foot increase in sea levels. If such thing happens, then many low lying areas in the world especially Bangladesh, Netherlands, Guam, Indonesia, Maldives and Sri Lanka could be engulfed by sea waters. Increase in global temperature may trigger the spread of dreadful diseases like Malaria, Virus fever, dengue fever and other sub-tropical diseases. Ever increasing temperature may upset weather patterns all over the world , causing starvation due to drought in prime food –producing regions namely South Asia , sub-Saharan Africa and tropical Latin America. Due to unprecedented increase in temperature, the whole gamut of species of animals and plants could be wiped out. 7. MAJOR PLAYERS OF GLOBAL WARMING: U. S. A is not only a foremost economy of the world but also the largest consumer of fossil fuels and naturally, it is the biggest producer of greenhouse gasses, comprising of more than 20% of the world’s carbon dioxide emission which is about 5 billion metric tons. Being the most industrialized economy, U. S. A is heavily depending on coal, oil and natural gas for its energy needs and hence U. S. A government is rather reluctant to initiate any appropriate steps to limit the greenhouse gas emissions and charges that Arrhenius theory is only a myth. U. S. A is averse to initiate any immediate action restraining the use of fossil fuels or to limit such use as they fear it would have long term effect on its economy. According to Global Climate Change Coalition, an industry group which is vehemently opposing prescribing mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions as it would result in the ruining of economy. Further , a study pursued by the coalition group forecasts that if U. S. A pursues some measures on restricting its greenhouse gas emission , then it would result about a 3% decline in U. S gross domestic product by 2010, resulting in a fall of 25% in the growth rate of American’s standard of living. Fig 1: Source: Pew Centre on Global Climate Change, December 2004. 8. PREVENTIVE MEASURES: An international treaty namely ‘The Kyoto Protocol ‘was adopted in Kyoto, in Japan in 1997 mainly to curb the emissions of greenhouse gasses. The Kyoto Protocol has prescribed mandating limits on carbon emissions which took effect in 2005 nearly after eight years of it was introduced. Regrettably, U. S. A, the world’s top carbon emitter has yet to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. Some Energy companies and economists have proposed to introduce taxing carbon as an enticement to tempt both the industries and consumers to use low carbon emitting fuels. Gases like Chlorofluorocarbons [CFC] are man made ones and this gas was used as propellants in aerosol containers, as refrigerants and also being used as a solvent in the manufacture of computer chip. It has been discovered that CFC were mutilating the stratospheric ozone layer thereby permitting majority of the sun’s destructive ultraviolet radiation to reach the Earth. The World CFC manufacturers have agreed to phase out their production of CFC by signing 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone layer. It is to be observed that the man made gasses like CFC is damaging the Ozone layer only very little and the major culprit is the carbon dioxide. Further felling the trees also contribute the level of CO2 high in the atmosphere as green trees helps to remove the gasses from the atmosphere or to maintain equilibrium. During the May 2005, New Zealand had introduced â€Å"carbon taxes’ mainly to dissuade excessive use of carbon oriented fuels. Thus, New Zealand had imposed about 6% to home electricity consumption and 9% for business energy cost. By 2012, all signatories to Kyoto Protocol should reduce their GHG emissions to less than 5% which is below 1990 levels. Likewise, The European Union had introduced a regional cap –and-trade policy to make it convenient for high emitting EU countries to oblige. 9. ADVANTAGES OF LIMITING THE EMISSION: Some U. S industries, though initially opposed to prescribe caps on emission, later considered that the stricter policy as not only environmentally essential but also potentially advantageous to economy since it will push for the invention of new technologies. Further, Title IV of the 1992 Clean Air Act demanded industries and utilities to minimize their sulfur dioxide emissions which are released by burning coal. Many companies who have exceeded their target sold their excess allowances to some companies that fall short of complying the above provision. Thus, a market in sulfur dioxide allowances materialized. The trading of these excess allowances is being conducted on the Chicago Board of Trading along with the markets for agricultural products and pork belly futures. 10. THE METHODOLOGY OF GREENHOUSE WARMING EARTH’S SURFACE: The greenhouse phenomenon is nothing about carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases discharged into the Earth’s atmosphere will trap solar heat and such trapping will warm the earth’s surface and earth’s lower atmosphere. The greenhouse gas emission effect has been explained in the following diagram: FIG 2: EFFECT OF GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSION: Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 11. CRITICS ARGUMENT AGAINST FINDINGS: Some critics like Sallie Baliunas who is Harvard University’s astrophysics argue that in the past century alone, there was an increase of just 0. 5 degree Celsius and not more than a 10 to 20 % of a degree could have been caused by human-made greenhouse gases. According to Baliunas, the 0. 5 to 1. 5 degree Celsius warming foretold by the computer simulations overstates the greenhouse effect created by the equivalent 50% buildup of carbon dioxide. Some critics argue that IPCC disclosure that there is a perceptible human influence on global climate† tosses the finding itself into air. Some critics vehemently lament that sea-level surge predictions are embellished as the temperature in polar region would still remain below freezing. Some points out those supporters have projected an illusion that global warming would result in the spread of malaria and mosquito oriented diseases. Supporters of global warming have forgotten to take into account the advanced technology available as on date like air-conditioning, mosquito repellents and mosquito coils and modern medicines have completely eradicated Malaria from the soil of U. S. A and substantially in other countries. Likewise, critics assailed a report forecasting that algal blooms amplified by warming waters would cause cholera was disparaged as unfounded one by the evidence. 12. IPCC’s FINDINGS ON GLOBAL WARMING: United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] has made the following revelations about global warming; ? There will be an increase of 15 to 90 centimeters in sea levels or by 6 inches to 3 feet by the year 2100. This mainly due to raising global warming which will melt polar ice sheets and the glaziers and there will be an expansion of water due to its getting warmed. ? Global warming will result in increase of extremely hotter days and there will be shrinking of cold days in general. ? There will be drastic change in weather pattern causing havoc floods like Katrina and some provinces will be engulfed by famine or droughts. ? There will be an intensity of rainfall as scientists would not predict whether severe storms and tropical cyclones would transform the intensity and location. If the sea level increases from half –foot to three feet level , then that would extensively flood the areas like parts of south Florida and southern Louisiana and would create an wide-ranging infrastructure changes in cities like Texas , Dallas , S. C , Charleston and some extent New York City. Further, regional warming trend over the past five decades has made ice shelves along the coast of Antarctica to crumple. Some supporters of the global warming argue that people would be benefit from climate change. According to World Climate Report, warmer climate will pave the way for opening up Siberia and northern Canada suitable for agriculture production, increase the rainfall globally and minimize the perils of winter driving. According to World Climate Report magazine that global warming would usher more advantages and these advantage will overtake its disadvantages. Imagine a warmer climate in poles, Siberia and in Netherlands. It would drastically reduce the energy consumption on heating, reduced clothing expenses, transportation will be less problematic and overall death rates would be at a lower level. Plants absorb the carbon dioxide through their leaves, employ it in the process of photosynthesis and then emit oxygen. Thus, the oxygen released by plant is taken up by the animals for their existence. Thus, carbon dioxide released by animals is returned to atmosphere and once again taken up by the plants as well as by oceans that envelop the Earth’s surface. 13. FUTURE ACTIONS TO BE PURSUED: United States, China and India are the three countries which have to be involved for the long-term reduction and these countries are not part of Kyoto’s Protocol first round. Since United States is not a signatory to the Kyoto’s Protocol, cutting emissions below 1990 level would be impossible to achieve. 14. ALTERNATE ENERGY: Wind energy is being employed in a large capacity in Germany and in a substantial way in countries like India, Denmark U. S, and Spain. As of today, wind energy is growing in a fast space due to technological advancement. It is to be observed that wind energy does not harm the environment and does not generate any greenhouse gases or atmospheric emission. Wind energy is named as renewable energy as it is replenishable and depends upon the sun as it is a form of solar energy. Hence, as long as sun is there, wind energy can be harnessed without any limit. Tidal energy is being harnessed to manufacture electricity also. A tidal power plant is in operation on the Rance River, an estuary of the English Channel in northwestern France since summer 1966. Tidal power plants will be most effective if the difference between high and low tides is enormous, as in Rance estuary, it is estimated that the difference is around 8. 5m or about 28 feet. Nuclear energy is a clean, competent and cost effective energy of the future. Some argue that though the nuclear energy is costly but it can be tolerated as it is a very efficient form of energy. For example, when set of uranium fuel rods is fitted in a nuclear reactor, it needs not to be replaced for many years. Further, uranium is available in plenty and its supplies are assured for many centuries ahead. As compared to fossil fuel based power plants , nuclear power plants does not emit toxic gasses in the atmosphere which ultimately responsible for global warming. It is to be remembered that a nuclear power plant does not pollute either the atmosphere or the water as compared to a coal-fired power plant.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.